Pengertian Desentralisasi

- 8/12/2017
Apa Itu Desentralisasi?
Desentralisasi
  1. Pustaka Inggris: mencakup konsep: devolution, deconcentration. „ 
  2. Mengembalikan konsentrasi administrasi dari pemerintah pusat kepada pemerintah daerah. „ 
  3. Fenomena politik dalam administrasi dan pemerintahan, dimana desentralisasi diartikan sebagai pendelegasian wewenang ke tingkat hirarkhi teritorial yang lebih rendah. „ 
  4. Pengertian desentralisasi perlu dibedakan dengan pengertian tentang pemencaran ke tingkat cabang- cabang dan pendelegasian dalam arti seorang atasan mempercayakan bawahannya untuk tanggung jawab terhadap dirinya.
  5. Dalam studi politik diartikan bahwa desentralisasi akan merujuk pada distribusi kekuasaan teritorial, sejauh mana kekuasaan dan wewenang disebarkan melalui hirarkhi geografis, institusi dan proses. „ 
  6. Fokus perhatian desentralisasi adalah subdivisi negara kesatuan atau federalisme, dimana masing-masing mempunyai sistem pemerintah daerah internalnya sendirisendiri. „ 
  7. Desentralisasi dalam lembaga nasional dimana kementerian/perusahaan publik mendelegasikan otoritas kepada pejabat yang menanggung jawab kegiatan tersebut, sehingga dapat diartikan bahwa desentralisasi akan melibatkan bentuk hirarkhi yang berbeda yang mengkombinasikan institusi dan fungsi yang berbeda.
Karakteristik Desentralisasi:
  1. First local units of government are autonomous, independent, and clearly perceived as separate level of government over which central authorities exercise little or not direct control. 
  2. Second, the local governments have clear and legally recognized geographical boundaries within which they exercise authority and perform public functions. „ 
  3. Third, local governments have corporate status and power to secure resources to perform their functions. „ 
  4. Fourth, devolution implies the need to “develop local government as institution” in the sense they have some influence. „ 
  5. Finally, devolution is an arrangement in which there are reciprocal, mutually beneficial, and coordinate relationships between central and local governments; that is, the local government has ability to interact reciprocal with other units in the system of government of which it is a part”.
Type Desentralisasi:
  1. SECONCENTRATION: handling over some amount of administrative authority or responsibility to lower levels within the government ministries or agencies „ 
  2. DELEGATION: transferring responsibility for specifically defined functions to organizations that are outside the regular bureaucratic structure and are only indirectly controlled by the central government „ 
  3. DEVOLUTION: i.e., creation and strengthening of sub-national units of the government, activities of which are substantially outside the direct control of the central government; and „ 
  4. PRIVATIZATION: i.e., passing all responsibility for functions to non governmental organizations of privete enterprises independent of the government.

 

Masukkan Kata Kunci Pencarian Anda di Sini